When I was first recruited as an Architect, honestly I was not entirely sure what to expect. The typical ask from an architect in a project is to help during proposal stage, clarify requirements and provide a design that the implementers can start on. Apart from the usual suspects I learned over the course of time that there were other things that go into making an effective Architect. I will try to outline some of those here, which I hope will help others in the future.
1. Nail down the specifics
Many times I have found that the entire ask from a client would be a one-liner, which could be interpreted in multiple ways. After passing through the different layers of procurement, sales, marketing, etc. the one-liner would have morphed into a multi-liner that would have lost the original one-liner in translation. To successfully identify what the client really need, you would have to peel back each layer and figure out the history.
What a client needs and what the client wants differ in 80% of the cases, once you have done this. If possible, it is always good to have a chat with the client on what problem he/she really wants to solve. It could turn out to be something completely different. One of the best ways to identify this is to nail down the specifics.
The specifics could be about use case scenarios test cases, set-ups, processes, etc. Don’t talk about your design or solution at this stage. The important thing is to understand what they really need.
2. Know your patterns
It is no secret that design patterns holds the key to coming up with a successful design for a solution. Software (or Hardware) architecture is about using patterns in the right way. Each pattern has different scalability, complexity and extendibility. Learn not just the patterns, but their limitations and adaptability. While the client may be asking you for a specific requirement, look beyond it and bring additional value to make sure that the design you come up with can meet future requirements that he/she could face. You may not be implementing it at the moment. But the design itself, should lend itself to future additions. Don’t hesitate to show case it either. If a client knows you have put the extra bit of effort to solve his future problems too, he will come to you when the need arises.
3. Automate everything
I can’t stress the importance of this enough. Before you set out on a new project make sure you have as many automation tools as required to cover all aspects of the execution. While an architect may not be expected to do this, it is something that should be done to ensure a smooth execution. Continuous Integration, automated test tools/cases, automated design/API document generation, code checkers, code analysis tools, etc… ensures that you put the effort in solving the problems instead of chasing down loose ends. Tie this in with your requirements/design to ensure that it gets executed. This may not be easy when dealing with legacy projects or those with lots of third party components. You may need to take a call on how coverage you can achieve. Try to stretch and cover as much as possible. It will save a lot of pain in the future.
4. Try out new things
Getting comfortable or complacent is one of the worst things you can ever do. I have done that and I have suffered. Always try to get out of your comfort zone. This stands for not just architects, but for everyone. Learn new tools, new languages, and new approaches. There is a lot of material out there. You just have to look for it. Read up, try out, and never hesitate to do a test drive. Who knows? If not a current problem, it could help you solve a future problem. Try to see gaps and possible improvements in your domain. There is always a problem out there that you can solve. The trick is always to formulate the right question.
5. Follow through on design
The job of the architect never ends at the design phase. He has to act as a consultant throughout the life of a project. It is always your baby. You have to nurture it, help it grow, correct the wrongs and hold it on the right path. The unexpected will always happen, there would be changes required. Some would be gradual and some would be sudden. The gradual changes are the most dangerous. If you are not monitoring the changes, the gradual changes would subvert the direction that you originally envisaged. Over time they would affect the original design to make it unusable or unsuitable for the purposes that you had in mind, when you first came up with it. Be conscientious in the follow through. Keep in mind that implementers are a harried lot. The pressure is on them to fix the bugs and deliver to the customer on time. You will need to throw your weight judiciously and pull in and convince the client and other stakeholders too, if you think a particular fix or change may solve the short term problem, but create a more serious long term problem. Have your arguments ready, but know that the client may be under pressure themselves. In the end, it is always better for everyone to know about a potential problem, than to be blissfully unaware about it.
6. Identify and continuously measure your KPIs
As a part of the design always figure out the Key Performance Indicators for the design. Come up with the non-functional requirements that are clear cut and makes sense. And always have a defined, automated approach to achieve these requirements. Again I cannot stress enough on the importance of these numbers. You will need to have KPIs that cover all features/requirements. Try to get these numbers as often as possible. They should be part of your build or smoke/short test process and published whenever collected. If it makes sense, graph it over time and see how the numbers vary (and they do vary!). This will help you identify and rectify the problems that directly affect your design implementation. It will also help you when communicating effectiveness and advocating changes. After all nobody can argue with a number.
7. Keep in mind Murphy’s law
If it can go wrong, it will, and horribly so. That is part of life. As an architect, the only thing you can do is to minimize the impact and try to derive positives from negatives. A key strategy I try to follow at design stage is individualizing components. Component functionalities and interfaces have to be defined as clearly as possible. Incorporate fail-safe mechanisms that ensure that others who use the component know exactly what went wrong, when everything goes south. Yes, that error code is important! So is that exception/error handling! Try to cover as much error scenarios as possible. If possible make sure that components can work individually as well as in group, so that even when there are failures, they don’t become catastrophic. Trust me, the ease in which you can diagnose and identify an error during a demo (and fix if possible), can impress a client as much as a successful demo.
8. Learn from failures and successes
During the course of different projects and designs, identify what worked and what didn’t. There are lessons to be learned from failures and successes. Also what worked for one project may not necessarily work for another. While some of this could be capture in Retrospective or similar process in Agile methodologies, the learning differs for an Architect from the group. The learning could be related more to effectiveness of design, ease of implementation, what helped in that, and what didn’t, maintainability of the design, customer feedback on that, amount of refactoring, etc. Try to keep doing this over course of a project during specific milestones. Always involve the implementers in this feedback, since they would have borne the brunt of your decisions.
9. Establish good habits
Apart from being an architect, developers who want to follow a technical path also look at Architects as role models. The influence you have should be used to establish good habits in the developers from the start, whether it is on maintaining code hygiene or following coding conventions. The inputs that you give would provide the basic building blocks for their budding careers and can give the necessary momentum and motivation for them to excel. Practice what you preach for maximum impact.
10. Keep an open mind
The best inputs I have got are sometimes in the context of something entirely different, sometimes from a different domain or discipline. So do not restrict yourself to your area of specialization. Learn from everyone. Even the least technical person would have something to teach you, once you get a handle on how to cross co-relate learning. The simplest things in a different area or field could give you inputs that if you properly correlate may give rise to innovative ideas in your domain.
I hope that you gained some insights from this post that will prove useful over the course of your career. In case you need any further pointers, or you had some comments, or just need to discuss, do drop me a line on my email and I will reply as my schedule allows.